Picture of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    G. Steven Krakowka

G. Steven Krakowka Adjunct Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbiology

Ohio State University

Research Area(s)

  • General pathology and pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infectious diseases

Academic Credentials

  • DVM: Washington State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 1971.
  • PhD: The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology (now Veterinary Biosciences), 1974. Doctoral (PhD) Thesis: Immunologic Studies of Canine Distemper Virus Infection in Gnotobiotic Dogs (Adalbert  Koestner DVM, PhD, advisor).
  • Diplomate: American College of Veterinary Pathology, 1976.
  • Professor Emeritus, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University
  • Member, Emeritus Academy, The Ohio State University
  • Adjunct Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan
  • Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrowgate, TN

Research Interests

  • General pathology and pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infectious diseases
  • Canine and porcine immunology and pathology 
  • Gastroenterology and mucosal immunology (Helicobacter pylori, H. cerdo)
  • Porcine circoviruses, porcine torque teno viruses, Canine circoviruses
  • Human/animal enteric viruses (rotaviruses, caliciviruses and noroviruses)
  • Porcine and alpha- and deltacoronavirus infections


Harding, J. H., Ellis, J. A., McIntosh, K. A. and Krakowka, S.: Dual Heterologous  Porcine  Circovirus  Genogroup  2a/2b  Infection  Induces  Severe  Disease  in  Germfree  Pigs. Vet Microbiol, 145:209-219, 2010.   

McIntosh, K. A., Krakowka, G. S., Ringler, S. S. and Ellis, J. A.:  In Situ Detection of Urease positive Helicobacter-pylori-like Organisms on Swine Gastric Mucosa. Can J Vet Res, 74:237-240, 2010.

Khatri, M., Dwivedi, V., Krakowka, S., Manickam C., Ali, A., Wang, L., Quin, Z., Renukaradhya, G. J. and Lee, C-W.: Swine influenza virus induces acute inflammatory immune responses in pig lungs: A potential animal model to understand human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. J Virol, 84:11210-11218, 2010.

Ellis, J. A. and Krakowka, S.: Canine parainfluenza virus, a forgotten but still important pathogen in dogs. J. Am Vet Med Assn, 240:273-284, 2012.

Krakowka, S., Allan, G. M., Ellis, J., Hamberg, A., Charreyre, C., Brooks, C. and Meehan, B.: A Nine Base Nucleotide Sequence in the Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Nucleocapsid Gene Determines Viral Replication and Virulence. XJ Meng, editor, Virus Res, 164:90-99, 2012.

Allan, G., Krakowka, S., Ellis, J. and Charreyre, C.:  Discovery and Evolving History of Two Genetically Related but Phenotypically Different Viruses, Porcine Circoviruses 1 and 2. XJ Meng, editor, Virus Res, 164:4-9, 2012.

Gamage, L. N. A., McIntosh, K. A., Parker S., Harding, J., Krakowka, S. and Ellis, J.:  Efficacy of Parenteral Vaccination Against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) in Seropositive Piglets. Can J of Vet Res, 76:301-307, 2012.

Duan, J., Papenfuss, T., Krakowka, S. and Li, J.: Pathogenesis of Primate Norovirus (Tulane Virus) Infection in Gnotobiotic Pigs. J Virol, in review, 2014.

Ellis, J. A. and Krakowka, S.: Antibody Responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica in Vaccinated and Infected Dogs. Can. Vet. J., 55: 857-864, 2014.

Ali, M. M., Newsom, D. L., Gonzalez, J. F., Sabag-Daigle, A., Stahl, A. C., Steidley, B., Dubena, J., Dyszel1, J. L., Smith, J. N., Dieye1, Y., Arsenescu, R., Krakowka, S., Romeo, T., Behrman, E. J., White, P. and Ahmer, B. M. M.: Fructose-asparagine is a Novel Nutrient that is Critical for Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine, PLOS (Pathogens) 10(6) e1004209, 2014.

Krakowka, S.: Horse’s Teeth, Ockam’s Razor and the Veracity of the Written Word. Zoetis Smart Briefs, J Am Vet Med Assn, 1-12, 2014.

Ma, Y., Wei, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhu Y., Shilo K., Oglesbee, M., Krakowka, S., Whelan S. P. J. and Li, J.: mRNA Cap Methylation Influences Pathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus In Vivo. J Virol, 88:2913-2926, 2014.

Lou, F., Ye, M., Ma, Y, Li X., DiCaprio E., Chen, H., Krakowka, S., Hughes J., Kingsley D., and Li, J.: Efficient Inactivation of Uncultivable Human Norovirus by High Pressure Processing Estimated by a Receptor Binding Assay and a Gnotobiotic pig model. Mbios, 2015 (submitted).

Ma, Y., Zhang Y., Liang, X., Lou, F., Oglesbee, M., Krakowka, S., Li, J.: Origin, Evolution and Virulence of Porcine Deltacoronaviruses in the United States. mBio 6(2), e00064-15 doi 10.1128/mBio 00064-15, 2015.

Ma, Y., Zhang, T., Liang, X., Oglesbee, M., Krakowka, S., Neihaus, A., Wang, G., Jia G., Song, H., Li, J.:  Two-way antigenic cross-reactivity between porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus. J. Virol.,  submitted, 2015.