Culicoides species — biting midges or no-see-ums
Midges of the genus Culicoides occur around the world, including in Canada. Adult females must blood-feed on animals, producing painful bites prior to laying eggs.
The hornfly Haematobia irritans occurs in association with cattle around the world, including in Canada.
Hypoderma bovis and H. lineatum
Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum are the common warble flies of cattle, and occasionally other hosts, in the northern hemisphere.
Lice: chewing and sucking species
Sucking and chewing lice occur on cattle around the world. The life cycle is direct and all life cycle stages - adults, eggs (nits), larvae and nymphs occur on the host.
The face fly Musca autumnalis occurs on cattle and sometimes horses around the world, including in Canada.
Simulium species — black flies or buffalo gnats
Flies of the genus Simulium (blackflies or buffalo gnats) occur in almost all parts of the world, including Canada.
Stomoxys calcitrans — stable fly
The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans occurs around the world. The life cycle involves egg laying in faeces or decaying and damp organic material, for example straw bedding.