Among tapeworms of importance in veterinary medicine, the closest relatives of Moniezia and Thysanosoma are the genera Anoplocephala and Paranoplocephala of horses.
Adult Thysanosoma are up to approximately 30 cm in length and 10 mm in width. The scolex is similar to Moniezia and there are two sets of reproductive organs in each segment but only a single uterus. In gravid segments of Thysanosoma, however, the eggs are located in small "packets", similar to Dipylidium in dogs. There is a clearly visible fringe along the posterior margin of each segment (Thysanosoma is known as the fringed tapeworm).
Eggs of the two species of Moniezia are up to approximately 70 µ in diameter and are irregular in shape. Each egg contains a hexacanth larva enclosed in a pyriform apparatus, which has the appearance of an ice cream cone.
Eggs of Thysanosoma are grouped in para-uterine organs (similar to Dipylidium caninum in dogs) measuring approximately 175 µ by 145 µ and each containing six to twelve eggs. The eggs of Thysanosoma do not have a pyriform apparatus.
Host range and geographic distribution
Life cycle - indirect
Life Cycle: Moniezia and Thysanosoma
Pathology and clinical signs
Treatment and control
Because of the assumed generally low pathogenicity of the both genera of tapeworms, treatment and control of Moniezia or Thysanosoma in cattle or in sheep are not usually a concern. Albendazole (VALBAZEN) at the normal therapeutic dose and extralabel fenbendazole (PANACUR, SAFE-GUARD) at 2X the normal therapeutic dose are effective for Moniezia.
Additional information on the products mentioned is available from the Compendium of Veterinary Products (Twelfth Edition, 2011), or from the manufacturers.