Western College of Veterinary Medicine

Research Area(s)

  • Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), equine dentistry (temporomandibular joint disease) and evidence-based medicine


Dr. James Carmalt graduated from the University of Cambridge in 1998 and then completed an internship in large animal medicine at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM). After working in general mixed practice (Tasmania, Australia), he returned to the WCVM for two back-to-back residencies in equine practice and large animal surgery.

Next, Dr. Carmalt spent one year practising in Australia at an equine specialty practice that focused on Thoroughbred broodmare and foal surgery. He returned to Canada in 2007 and joined the WCVM's Department of Large Animal Sciences where he is a tenured full professor.

Dr. Carmalt travels extensively to work in private practices and academic institutions internationally. He has authored more than 90 peer-reviewed publications and has presented his research findings at more than two dozen international conferences.

His main areas of research are equine dentistry (specifically temporomandibular joint or TMJ disease) and evidence-based medicine. He holds a PhD (the topic of which was equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction or PPID), and is quadruple-boarded (equine practice, equine dentistry, equine sports medicine and rehabilitation, and large animal surgery).

Dr. Carmalt commonly peer-reviews professional publications including those for PLOS One, Veterinary Surgery and other high quality journals. Additionally, he is an editorial board member of the open access, EBVM journal Veterinary Evidence, which is published by RCVS Knowledge.

Academic Credentials

  • MA, VetMB, University of Cambridge
  • MVetSc, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan
  • PhD, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan
  • Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (FRCVS)
  • Diplomate, American Board of Veterinary Practitioners (ABVP — Equine)
  • Diplomate, American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC — Equine)
  • Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation (ACVSMR — Equine)
  • Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS — Large Animal)


  • Carmalt, J.L.  2020.  Intraoperative depression of the bulla of the maxillary septum as a method of improving sinus drainage without epistaxis in horses.  Equine Veterinary Educationhttps://www.doi.org/10.1111/eve.13402

  • Carmalt, J.L., Tucker, M.L.  2020.  Arthroscopic approach and intra-articular anatomy of the equine discomandibular joint compartment of the temporomandibular joint.  Veterinary Surgery, 49(7): 1326-1333.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13487

  • Lohmann, K.L., Carmalt, J.  2020.  Recurrent colic and abdominal masses in horses – diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.  Equine Veterinary Education, 32(6): 302-305.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/eve.12985

  • Carmalt, K.P., Carmalt, J.L., Henderson, K., Allen, A.L., Wilson, D.G.  2019.  Novel technique for prevention of rotation of the distal phalanx relative to the hoof wall in horses with acute laminitis.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 80(10): 943-949.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.10.943

  • Smyth, T.T., Allen, A.L., Carmalt, J.L.  2019.  Histologic assessment of age-related changes in the temporomandibular joints of horses.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 80(12): 1107-1113.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.12.1107

  • Tucker, M.L., Sumner, D., Reinink, S.K., Wilson, D.G., Carmalt, J.L.  2019.  Ex vivo evaluation of arytenoid corniculectomy, compared with three other airway interventions, performed on cadaveric equine larynges with simulated recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 80(12): 1136-1143.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.12.1136

  • Carmalt, J.L., Henderson, K.V., Rawlinson, J.E., Waldner, C.L.  2018.  Use of crown height of the maxillary first molar tooth to approximate the age of horses.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 79(8): 867-873.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.79.8.867

  • Carmalt, J.L., Mortazavi, S., McOnie, R.C., Allen, A.L., Unniappan, S.  2018.  Profiles of pro-opiomelanocortin and encoded peptides, and their processing enzymes in equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.  PLoS ONE, 13(1): e0190796.  https://www.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190796

  • Carmalt, J.L., Scansen, B.A.  2018.  Development of two surgical approaches to the pituitary gland in the Horse.  Veterinary Quarterly, 38(1): 21-27.  https://www.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2017.1415488

  • Thomas, K.L., Carmalt, J.L., Burnett, W.D., Arjmand, H., Johnston, J.D.  2018.  In vitro mechanical evaluation of three transfixation pin-cast constructs applied to equine forelimbs.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 79(12): 1287-1297.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.79.12.1277

  • Carmalt, J.L., Johansson, B.C., Zetterström, S.M., McOnie, R.C.  2017.  Racing performance of standardbred trotting horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath and age- and sex-matched control horses.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 78(7): 847-853.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.7.847

  • Carmalt, J.L., Simhofer, H., Bienert-Zeit, A., Rawlinson, J.E., Waldner, C.L.  2017.  The association between oral examination findings and computed tomographic appearance of the equine temporomandibular joint.  Equine Veterinary Journal, 49(6): 780-783.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12693

  • Carmalt, J.L., Waldner, C.L., Allen, A.L.  2017.  Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: An international survey of veterinarians’ approach to diagnosis, management, and estimated prevalence.  Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 81(4): 261-269.

  • Luan, X., Belev, G., Tam, J.S., Jagadeeshan, S., Hassan, N., Gioino, P., Grishchenko, N., Huang, Y., Carmalt, J.L., Duke, T., Jones, T., Monson, B., Burmester, M., Simovich, T., Yilmaz, O., Campanucci, V.A., MacHen, T.E., Chapman, L.D., Ianowski, J.P.  2017.  Cystic fibrosis swine fail to secrete airway surface liquid in response to inhalation of pathogens.  Nature Communications, 8(1): 786.  https://www.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00835-7

  • Smyth, T., Allen, A.L., Carmalt, J.L.  2017.  Clinically significant, nontraumatic, degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joints in a horse.  Equine Veterinary Education, 29(2): 72-77.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/eve.12382

  • Zetterström, S.M., Johansson, B.C., Carmalt, J.L.  2017.  Evaluation of clinical and tenoscopic findings in the carpal flexor sheath of horses.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 78(7): 840-846.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.7.840

  • Carmalt, J.L., Duke-Novakovski, T., Schott, H.C., van der Kolk, J.H.  2016.  Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 77(7): 730-737.  https://www.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.77.7.730

  • Carmalt, J.L., Johanssen, B., Waldner, C.  2016.  Comparisons between staphylectomy and tie-forward procedures in combination with a sternothyroideus myotenectomy for the treatment of intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate: An observational study.  Veterinary Surgery, 45(6): 816-823.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.12518

  • Carmalt, J.L., Kneissl, S., Rawlinson, J.E., Zwick, T., Zekas, L., Ohlerth, S., Bienert-Zeit, A.  2016.  Computed tomographic appearance of the temporomandibular joint in 1018 asymptomatic horses: A multi-institution study.  Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, 57(3): 237-245.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12334

  • Smyth, T.T., Carmalt, J.L., Treen, T.T., Lanovaz, J.L.  2016.  The effect of acute unilateral inflammation of the equine temporomandibular joint on the kinematics of mastication.  Equine Veterinary Journal, 48(4): 523-527.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12452

  • Thomas, K.L., Wilson, D.G., Bracamonte, J.L., Carmalt, J.L., Luby, C.D.  2016.  Quality of adhesions after sutured paramedian vs. laparoscopic toggle abomasopexy in an ovine model.  Veterinary Surgery, 45(4): 488-493.  https://www.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.12468