Western College of Veterinary Medicine

Academic Credentials

  • BSc (Honours), Cell Biology, University of Victoria, Canada, 1977
  • DVM, Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada, 1981
  • PhD, Viral Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Canada, 1988 
  • 2003-Present: Head of Pathogenomics Research Group, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO), University of Saskatchewan
  • 2008-Present: Professor, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan
  • 2009-Present: Canada Research Chair in Neonatal Mucosal Immunology

Research Interests

  • Analysis of innate mucosal immune responses using gene knock-out mice as a model.
  • Analysis of mucosal immune system development in newborn ruminants and the role of dendritic cells in immune regulation.
  • Development and delivery of preventative and therapeutic vaccines for prion diseases.
  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis as a disease model to analyze mucosal immune responses to persistent enteric pathogens.
  • Investigation of mechanisms by which psychological and physical stressors alter host immune responses to respiratory viral and bacterial infections in cattle.


Liang G, Malmuthuge N, Guan LL, Griebel PJ. 2015. Model Systems to Analyze the Role of miRNAs and Commensal Microflora in Bovine Mucosal Immune System Development. Molecular Immunology 66:57-66.

Griebel, PJ. 2015. BVDV Vaccination in North America: Risks Versus Benefits. Animal Health Research Reviews 16(1): 27-32.

Mirabzadeh-Ardakani A, Solie J, Gonzalez-Cano P, Schmutz SM, Griebel P. 2015. Expression of DEFB103 gene and protein. Cell and Tissue research (In Press)

Al Naggar Y, Tan Y, Rutherford C, Connor C, Griebel P, Giesy JP, Robertson A. Effects of Amitraz and Thymovar Fall Treatments on Phoretic Varroa mite populations, Virus Status and Winter Survival in Canadian Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L). J Apiculture Res (Accepted May 12, 2015)

Ahmed KA,  Wang L,  Mousseau D, Griebel, PJ, Xiang J. mTOR signal threshold switches T-cell fate by kinesin motor KIF13A. Journal of Leukocyte Biology (Accepted April 08, 2015)

Taschuk R, Van der Merwe J, Marciniuk K, Potter A, Cashman N, Griebel P, Napper S In Vitro Neutralization of Prions with PrPSc-Specific Antibodies.  Prion (In Press)

Liang G, Bao H, McFadden T, Stothard P, Griebel P, Guan LL. 2014. Potential regulatory role of microRNAs in the development of bovine gastrointestinal tract during early life. PLoS One 9(3): e92592

Malmuthuge N, Griebel P, Guan LL. 2014. Taxonomic identification of commensal bacteria associated with the mucosa and digesta throughout the gastrointestinal tract of pre-weaned calves. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80 (6): 2021-8.

González-Cano P, Arsic N, Popowych YI, and Griebel, PJ. 2014 Two Phenotypic and Functional Distinct CD11c+CD205+ Dendritic Cell Subpopulations in Bovine Blood. Developmental and Comparative Immunity 44, 378-88

Jimbo S, Griebel P, Babiuk L, Mutwiri G. 2014. IL-10 secreting CD21B cells are present in sheep jejunal Peyer's patches during fetal development. Cell and Tissue Research 356(2): 417-425.

Marciniuk K. Määttänen P, Taschuk R, Airey TD, Potter A, Cashman NR, Griebel P, Napper S. 2014. Development of a Multivalent, PrPSc-Specific Prion Vaccine through Rational Optimization of Three Disease-Specific Epitopes. Vaccine; 32:1988-97

Taschuk R,  Marciniuk K, Määttänen P, Madampage, C, Hedlin P, Potter A, Lee J, Cashman NR, Griebel P, Napper S. 2014. Safety, Specificity and Immunogenicity of a PrPSc-Specific Prion Vaccine based on the YYR Disease Specific Epitope. Prion 8(1):51-9.

Robertson AJ, Trost B,  Scruten E, Robertson T, Mostajeran M, Conner W, Kusalik A, Griebel P, Napper S. 2014. Identification of Developmentally-Specific Kinotypes and Mechanisms of Varroa Mite Resistance through Whole Organism Kinome Analysis. Frontiers Genetics May 21;5:139. doi: 10.3389

Arsenault RJ, Maattanen P, Daigle J, Potter A, Griebel P, Napper S. From Mouth to Macrophage: Mechanisms of Innate Immune Subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Frontiers Veterinary Research 45:54

Mirabzadeh-Ardakani A, Griebel P, Schmutz SM. 2014. Identification of a non-coding exon in the bovine DEFB103 gene. Gene 551,183-188.

Griebel PJ, Hill K, Stookey J. 2014. How Stress Alters Immune Responses During Respiratory Infection. Animal Health Research Reviews 15(2): 161-165.

Zhou M Chen Y, Griebel PJ, Guan LL. 2014. Methanogen Prevalence throughout the Gastrointestinal Tract of Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves. Gut Microbes 5(5):628-38. 

Charavaryamath C, Gonzalez-Cano P, Fries P, Gomis S, Doig K,  Scruten E, Potter A, Napper S, Griebel P. 2013. Host Responses to Persistent Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in surgically isolated bovine ileal segments, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 20(2): 156-65.

Trost B, Arsenault R, Griebel P, Napper S, Kusalik A. 2013. DAAPLE: a program that facilitates the design of species-specific kinome microarrays. Bioinformatics 29(13): 1693-5.

Arsenault RJ, Li Y, Maattanen P, Scruten E, Doige K, Potter A, Griebel P, Kusalik A, Napper S. 2013 Altered Toll-like Receptor 9 Signaling in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infected Monocytes Reveals Potential Therapeutic Targets. Infection and Immunity 81(1): 226-37.

Määttänen P, Trost B, Scruten E, Potter A, Kusalik A, Griebel P, Napper S. 2013. Divergent Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Correlate with Kinome Responses at the Site of Intestinal Infection. Infection and Immunity 81(8): 2861-72.

Trost B, Kindrachuk J, Scruten E, Griebel P, Kusalik A, Scott Napper S. 2013. Stable Species- and Individual-Specific Profiles of Cellular Kinase Activities. BMC Genomics 14, 854 (DOI: 10.1186/10.1186/1471-2164-14-854)

Griebel PJ. 2013. Defining barriers: the neonatal mucosal immune system. International Innovation 115:42-44.

Malmuthuge, N., Chen, Y., Li, M., Fries, P., Griebel, P.J., Baurhoo, B., Zhao, Z., and Guan, L.L. 2012. Distinct commensal bacteria associate with ingesta and mucosa throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 79(2):337-47

Arsenault, R., Griebel, P., Napper, S. 2011. Peptide Arrays for Kinome Analysis: New Opportunities and Remaining Challenges. Proteomics 11(24):4595-609.

Buchanan, R., Popowych, Y., Beblow, Arsic, N., C., Mutwiri, G.K., Potter, A.A., Babiuk, L.A. Griebel, P.J. Wilson, H.L. 2012. Interferon-gamma and B-cell Activating Factor promote B cell activation independent of TLR9 and T-cell signaling. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 145(1-2):453-63

Hedlin P, Taschuk R, Potter A, Griebel PJ, Napper S. 2012. Detection and Control of Prion Diseases in Food Animals.  ISRN Veterinary Science 2012, ID254739, 1-24

Malmuthuge, N., Li, M., Fries, P., Griebel, P.J., Guan, L. L. 2012. Regional and age dependent changes in Toll-like receptors expression through gastro intestinal tract of dairy calves. Vet Immunol Imunopath 146: 18-26.

Hill, K., Hunsaker, B., Townsend, H., Van den Hurk, S. Griebel, P.J. 2012. Mucosal immune response of newborn Holstein calves following intransal immunization with a modified-live, multivalent viral vaccine in the face of maternal antibody. JAVMA 240(10):1231-1240

Hodgson, P., Stookey, J. Popowych, Y., Potter, A., Babiuk, L. and Griebel, P.J. 2012. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. Veterinary Research 43:21-29.

Li, Y, Aresenault, R.J, Trost B, Slind, J, Griebel, PJ, Napper, S. Kusalik, A. 2012. A systematic approach for analysis of peptide array kinome data. (Protocol) Science Signaling 5(220): 1-12

Ahmed, KA, Wang L, Munegowda MA, Mulligan SJ, Gordon J, Griebel P, Xiang J. 2012. Direct in Vivo Evidence of CD4+ T-cell Requirement for CTL Response and Memory via pMHC I Targeting and CD40L Signaling. J Leukocyte Biology 92, 289-300.

Ghasemi, F., Gonzalez-Cano, P., Griebel, P.J., Palmer, C. 2012. Pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in endometrial cytobrush samples harvested from cows with and without subclinical endometritis. Theriogenology 78:1538-47.

Taschuk R, Griebel PJ. 2012. Commensal Microbiome Effects on Mucosal Immune System Development in the Ruminant Gastrointestinal Tract. Animal Health Research Reviews 13(1): 129-141.

Ryan J. Arsenault, Yue Li, Kelli Bell, Kimberley Doig, Andrew Potter, Philip Griebel, Tony Kusalik, and Scott Napper.  2012. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Inhibits Interferon Gamma-Induced Signaling in Bovine Monocytes: Insights into the cellular mechanisms of Johne’s Disease. Infection and Immunity 80(9): 3039-48.

Arsenault RJ, Li Y, Potter A, Griebel P, Kusalik A, Napper S. 2012. Induction of Ligand-Specific PrPC Signaling in Human Neuronal cells. Prion 6(5): 477-88.

Kindrachuk, J., Scruten, E., Gawaziuk, J., Attah-Poku, S., Potter, A., Babiuk, L.A., Griebel, P.J., Napper, S. 2011. Stability, Toxicity and Immunostimulatory Activity of Host Defense Peptide BMAP-28 and its Inversed and Retro-inversed Isomers. Biopolymers,96(1):14-24.

Griebel, P.J., Mutwiri, G., Singh, B. 2011. Innate Immunity: Complex specificity. (Editorial Comment). Cell and Tissue Research 343:1–4

Fries, P.N., and Griebel, P.J. 2011. Mucosal dendritic cell diversity in the gastrointestinal tract. Cell and Tissue Research 343: 33-41

Fries, P. Popowych, Y., Guan, L., Beskorwayne, T., Potter, A., Babiuk, L., Griebel, P.J. 2011. Mucosal Dendritic Cell Subpopulations in the Small Intestine of Newborn Calves. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 35 (10): 1040-1051.

Charavaryamath, C., Fries, P., Gomis, S., Bell, C., Doig, K., Guan, L.L., Potter, A., Napper, S., Griebel, P.J. 2011. Mucosal changes in a long-term bovine intestinal segment model following removal of ingesta and microflora. Gut Microbes 2:3, 134-144.

Gibson, A., Miah, S., Griebel, P., Brownlie, J., Werling, D. 2011. Identification of a lineage negative cell population in bovine peripheral blood with the ability to mount a strong type I interferon response. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 36, 332-41.

Buchanan, R., Popowych, Y., Beblow, C., Mutwiri, G.K., Potter, A.A., Babiuk, L.A. Griebel, P.J.Wilson, H.L. 2011. Bovine blood B cells are activated by CpG ODN but require myeloid cells to complete cellular proliferation.  Cellular Immunology 271 (1):16-28.

Fries, P., Popowych, Y., Guan, L., Griebel, P.J. 2011. Age-Related Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Myeloid and T Cell Populations in the Small Intestine of Calves. Cellular Immunology 271: 428-437

Hedlin, PD, Cashman NR, Li L, Gupta J,  Babiuk, LA, Potter AA, Griebel PJ,  Napper S. 2010. Design and Delivery of a Cryptic PrPC Epitope for Induction of PrPSc-Specific Antibody Responses. Vaccine 28(4), 981-88.

Scruten E, Kovacs-Nolan J, Griebel PJ, Latimer L, Kindrachuk J, Potter A, Babiuk LA, Littel-van den Hurk SD, Napper S. 2010. Retro-inversion enhances the adjuvant and CpG co-adjuvant activity of host defence peptide Bac2A. Vaccine, 28(17):2945-56.

Booth, J.S., Arsenault, R., Napper, S., Griebel, P.J., Potter, A.A., Babiuk, L.A., Mutwiri G.K., 2010. TLR9 signaling failure renders Peyer’s patch B regulatory cells unresponsive to CpG ODN stimulation.  J Innate Immunity 2(5):483-94.

Van Den Broeke, A., Oumouna, M., Beskorwayne, T., Syznal, M., Cleuter, Y., Babiuk, S., Bagnis, C., Martiat, P., Burny, A. and Griebel, P.J. 2010. Cytotoxic Responses to BLV Tax Oncoprotein Do not Prevent Leukemogenesis in Sheep. Leukemia

Jalal, S. Arsenault, R. Potter, A. A. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. Napper, S. (2009), Genome to kinome: species-specific peptide arrays for kinome analysis, Sci Signal, pl1.

Griebel, P. J. (2009), Mucosal vaccination of the newborn: an unrealized opportunity, Expert Rev Vaccines, 1-3.

Gaertner, F. H. Babiuk, L. A. Mutwiri, G. Armstrong, J. M. Griebel, P. J. (2009), Amended recombinant cells (ARCs) expressing bovine IFN-gamma: an economical and highly effective adjuvant system, Vaccine, 1377-85.

Brownlie, R. Zhu, J. Allan, B. Mutwiri, G. K. Babiuk, L. A. Potter, A. Griebel, P. (2009), Chicken TLR21 acts as a functional homologue to mammalian TLR9 in the recognition of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, Mol Immunol, 3163-70.

Booth, J. S. Griebel, P. J. Babiuk, L. A. Mutwiri, G. K. (2009), A novel regulatory B-cell population in sheep Peyer's patches spontaneously secretes IL-10 and downregulates TLR9-induced IFNalpha responses, Mucosal Immunol, 265-75.

Aich, P. Potter, A. Griebel, P. (2009), Modern approaches to understanding stress and disease susceptibility - A review with special emphasis on respiratory disease, Int J Gen Med, 1-14.

Aich, P. Babiuk, L.A. Potter, A. Griebel, P. (2009), Biomarkers for prediction of bovine respiratory disease outcome, Omics; A Journal of Integrative Biology, 1-11.

Whale, T. A. Griebel, P. J. (2008), A sheep in wolf's clothes: Can neutrophils direct the immune response?, Vet J.

Kindrachuk, J. Potter, J. Wilson, H. L. Griebel, P. Babiuk, L. A. Napper, S. (2008), Activation and regulation of toll-like receptor 9: CpGs and beyond, Mini Rev Med Chem, 590-600.

Kaushik, R. S. Begg, A. A. Wilson, H. L. Aich, P. Abrahamsen, M. S. Potter, A. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. (2008), Establishment of fetal bovine intestinal epithelial cell cultures susceptible to bovine rotavirus infection, J Virol Methods, 182-196.

Fjell, C. D. Jenssen, H. Fries, P. Aich, P. Griebel, P. Hilpert, K. Hancock, R. E. Cherkasov, A. (2008), Identification of novel host defense peptides and the absence of alpha-defensins in the bovine genome, Proteins, 420-30.

Gerdts, V. Littel-van den Hurk, S. D. Griebel, P. J. Babiuk, L. A. (2007), Use of animal models in the development of human vaccines, Future Microbiol, 667-75.

Griebel, P. J. Entrican, G. Rocchi, M. Beskorwayne, T. Davis, W. C. (2007), Cross-reactivity of mAbs to human CD antigens with sheep leukocytes, Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 115-22.

Kindrachuk, J. Potter, J. E. Brownlie, R. Ficzycz, A. D. Griebel, P. J. Mookherjee, N. Mutwiri, G. K. Babiuk, L. A. Napper, S. (2007), Nucleic acids exert a sequence-independent cooperative effect on sequence-dependent activation of Toll-like receptor 9, J Biol Chem, 13944-53.

Tsang, C. H. Mirakhur, K. K. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. (2007), Oral DNA immunization in the second trimester fetal lamb and secondary immune responses in the neonate, Vaccine, 8469-79.

Tsang, C. Babiuk, S. van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. (2007), A single DNA immunization in combination with electroporation prolongs the primary immune response and maintains immune memory for six months, Vaccine.

Nichani, A. K. Dar, M. A. Krieg, A. M. Mirakhur, K. K. Kaushik, R. S. Griebel, P. J. Manuja, A. Townsend, H. G. Babiuk, L. A. Mutwiri, G. K. (2007), Systemic innate immune responses following intrapulmonary delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in sheep, Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 357-68.

Babiuk, S. Tsang, C. van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. (2007), A single HBsAg DNA vaccination in combination with electroporation elicits long-term antibody responses in sheep, Bioelectrochemistry, 269-74.

Aich, P. Wilson, H. L. Kaushik, R. S. Potter, A. A. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. (2007), Comparative analysis of innate immune responses following infection of newborn calves with bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus, J Gen Virol, 2749-61.

Aich, P. Jalal, S. Czuba, C. Schatte, G. Herzog, K. Olson, D. J. Ross, A. R. Potter, A. A. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. (2007), Comparative approaches to the investigation of responses to stress and viral infection in cattle, OMICS, 413-34.

Whale, T. A. Wilson, H. L. Tikoo, S. K. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. (2006), Pivotal Advance: passively acquired membrane proteins alter the functional capacity of bovine polymorphonuclear cells, J Leukoc Biol, 481-91.

Whale, T. A. Beskorwayne, T. K. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. (2006), Bovine polymorphonuclear cells passively acquire membrane lipids and integral membrane proteins from apoptotic and necrotic cells, J Leukoc Biol.

Nichani, A. K. Mena, A. Kaushik, R. S. Mutwiri, G. K. Townsend, H. G. Hecker, R. Krieg, A. M. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. (2006), Stimulation of innate immune responses by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in newborn lambs can reduce bovine herpesvirus-1 shedding, Oligonucleotides, 58-67.

Mookherjee, N. Wilson, H. L. Doria, S. Popowych, Y. Falsafi, R. Yu, J. J. Li, Y. Veatch, S. Roche, F. M. Brown, K. L. Brinkman, F. S. Hokamp, K. Potter, A. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. Hancock, R. E. (2006), Bovine and human cathelicidin cationic host defense peptides similarly suppress transcriptional responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, J Leukoc Biol, 1563-74.

Wilson, H. L. Aich, P. Roche, F. M. Jalal, S. Hodgson, P. D. Brinkman, F. S. Potter, A. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. (2005), Molecular analyses of disease pathogenesis: application of bovine microarrays, Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 277-87.

Hodgson, P. D. Aich, P. Manuja, A. Hokamp, K. Roche, F. M. Brinkman, F. S. Potter, A. Babiuk, L. A. Griebel, P. J. (2005), Effect of stress on viral-bacterial synergy in bovine respiratory disease: novel mechanisms to regulate inflammation, Comp Funct Genomics, 244-50.

Griebel, P. J. Brownlie, R. Manuja, A. Nichani, A. Mookherjee, N. Popowych, Y. Mutwiri, G. Hecker, R. Babiuk, L. A. (2005), Bovine toll-like receptor 9: A comparative analysis of molecular structure, function and expression, Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 11-6.

Gaertner, F. H. Babiuk, L. A. Van Moorlehem, E. A. Beskorwayne, T. K. Lee, S. L. Shutter, R. W. Armstrong, J. M. Griebel, P. J. (2005), Amended recombinant cells (ARCstrade mark): An economical and surprisingly effective production and delivery vehicle for recombinant bovine IFN-gamma, J Control Release, 189-202.

Dar, A. Munir, S. Vishwanathan, S. Manuja, A. Griebel, P. Tikoo, S. Townsend, H. Potter, A. Kapur, V. Babiuk, L. A. (2005), Transcriptional analysis of avian embryonic tissues following infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus, Virus Res, 41-55.

Aich, P. Wilson, H. L. Rawlyk, N.A. Jalal, S. Kaushik, R. Begg, A. Potter, A.A. Babiuk, L.A. Abrahamsen, M.S. Griebel, P. (2005), Microarray analysis of gene expression following preparation of sterile intestinal "loops" in calves, Can J Animal Sci, 13-22.